15° Sunday After Pentecost

SCS

Who caused the crisis in the Church? I did.


“I hereby commit to staying engaged with the suffering of the world, as long as I am alive and as much as I am able.

I commit to this because on the cross no tear is cried in vain, no ache in the heart is unfruitful.

If I will gaze, wide-eyed, at the suffering of the world AND lean in, I will begin to learn what it is to be human, and I will see Jesus.

And there is no other way of being a Christian for me anymore. None whatsoever. If I don’t suffer with/for the world I might as well quit.

If I believe the Gospel—if Jesus really did come to heal me and the whole human race—then I commit to being a vessel of that healing.

His mercy is deep and wide enough for the entire world. Healing humanity is why He lived and died. How can I live for anything else, and how can I not die for it?”—Audrey Assad

A World That Runs on Sacrifice

We Christians tend to see the crucifixion as a horrible event, and the resurrection as that which rectified everything. This is actually true. It is totally true, in fact. But there’s a mysterious line in Revelation that seems to say that something of the crucifixion precedes even creation itself. Revelation 13:8 speaks of Jesus Christ as “the Lamb who was slain from the foundation of the world.” 1

What does it mean that the Lamb was slain from the foundation of the world? Didn’t He die out of love for us sinful humans? Yes, but the pattern of self-emptying is the very life of the Blessed Trinity. God-the-Father eternally engenders God-the-Son who returns the perfect gift of Himself to the Father, and the love that exists between them is God-the-Holy Spirit, the personalized bond of perfection. This happens in eternity, long before creation (or better written: outside even the willing of creation.)

Dr. Brandt Pitre frequently says, “The cross does in time what the Trinity does in eternity.” What he means is that if you want to know what the Trinity looks like on earth, look at a crucifix. Granted, it is true that only the second person of the Trinity became man. Only God-the-Son became the son of Mary who suffered on the cross. But Jesus also said, “Whoever has seen me, has seen the Father.”—John 14:9. I’m not saying that the Father suffered on the cross (the heresy of Patripassianism.) I am saying that when we look at the crucifix, we should see something more than simply guilt for our sins.  We should see the full love of the Trinity on earth.

In the resurrected but pierced heart of Jesus we see the eternal patterns of the pouring-out, the Lamb slain before time and in time. We see what it looks like when God’s infinite love collides with man’s sin, a murder that is both the most beautiful and horrible thing on earth. But in the crucifixion, we also see the Lamb who, in some mysterious way, was “slain from the foundation of the world,” even before Pilate got his hands on Him…before I got my hands on Him. How? Because God Himself is a pouring-out of Three infinite persons, and He has programmed creation to be self-gift;  even plants sacrifice themselves in order to live, to promote, to procreate, to make thrive a whole ecosystem.

Every joy in the Christian life is stamped with the Cross. Every sadness retains a preview of the resurrection. This is why bargain love will not lead to heaven. A bargain is defined as the most benefit at the least cost. For example, the teaching of heaven in Islam is bargain-love: A Muslim man gets an endless harem of women for one single act of suicide bombing if he takes down certain enemies for Allah. This sounds like a high price to us lukewarm Westerners, but it is not. It is a bargain: one act of pain for endless pleasure.

But God did not set up the universe like this. He set it into a cycle of perpetual sacrifice where he who dies in peace and love, ironically gets to live, because such is the life of the Trinity before time which we enter at death. Most people fashion contraception or onanism a mortal sin because of arbitrary rules.  But the sin of contraception or onanism (Genesis 38) reverses the patterns of the eternal pouring out upon oneself in selfishness.  It reverses the pattern of generosity that was set before time in the heart of the Lamb, revealed fully on the cross.  It simply won’t fit into heaven.

Reckless love is not a sweet-ideal but the pattern of our souls because we are made in God’s image and likeness.  And who is God?  A Trinity of three persons who live a life of eternal, sacrificial outpouring.  The only difference for us is that on earth, this is in a wayward state of both joy and sorrow. But the loss of life is the same pattern as eternal life.  For example, on the Feast of the martyr St. Lawrence (who was burned alive by Roman soldiers), St. Leo the Great wrote to the torturers, “That which can die passes by degrees beyond the reach of your tortures, and when Lawrence departeth to heaven, you and your fires are conquered. The love of Christ could not be overcome by the flames, and the glow that scorched the outward man was colder than that which burnt in the inner.”  I think we could say that heaven is the exact same sacrificial outpouring as martyrdom, without the pain. 

Thus, sacrifice is not a zero-sum game or even a matter of quid-pro-quo theology. God has programmed the universe so that the biggest losers become the biggest winners. Because of what is offered to us at the crucifixion (not only salvation, but a new life of love in suffering), sacrifice of oneself in love now becomes gain because of the cross.   In fact, Jesus turned all human relations into a losing of one’s life for others, but especially for God.  We know this because it was always this way with the Trinity before time, “slain from the foundation of the world.”

Withdrawing your heart, your money, your body, your life from generosity becomes loss in the new Divine Economy of grace because the cross is now the life of the Trinity on earth.  Acts of generosity and self-sacrifice would still be inspirational on YouTube in a  non-baptized soul, but of no eternal merit.  That is because baptism catches us into the very life of the Trinity, and allows us to join our joys, prayers, sorrows and sacrifices to the infinite merits of the sacrifice of Calvary, re-presented in every Mass.  2 In a baptized body-soul, the smallest act of love can become incorporated into the infinite value of the Paschal mystery.  If the Annunciation brought Divinity to humanity, then the Ascension brings our humanity to Divinity, nestled right into that very heart slain from the foundation of the world.   His Resurrection revealed that charity, when spent His way, is not divided but multiplied.  3

I’ve wondered for a long time how Jesus’ helpless suffering on the cross could possibly “disarm principalities and powers” (a reference to demons being defeated like war criminals in Col 2:15) The answer is that Christ’s love simply outshined the darkness, as it always did in heaven, but now on earth. The above icon is of the Christians who had their heads sawed off with knives by ISIS on the shores of Libya. Their reward was heaven, but again:  Heaven is the exact same sacrificial outpouring, without the pain. Heaven began long before their final breath, as forgiveness and perseverance is final participation in this love that lasts forever, that will always outshine the darkness.

Oh Lord Jesus, Your Church shows that Love is the Triumph of the cross when the world thinks it has won!


  1. There are many translations but I think this is the best translation considering the Greek ἀρνίου τοῦ ἐσφαγμένου ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου, translated by St. Jerome as agni qui occisus est ab origine mundi.

  2. St. Thomas Aquinas teaches that good works done in sin—original sin or mortal sin—although not meritorious towards a higher level of glory in heaven, are rewarded by God on earth.  St. Thomas Aquinas would probably hold the greatest of these would be the grace to repent and believe.

  3. In Matins of the old Divine Office for the II-class Feast of St. Lawrence St. Augustine also wrote “If you love your life too well, then you hate it; if you hate it with a holy hatred, then you love it. Blessed are they that, lest they should so love their life as to lose it, actually hate it, so as to keep it.”—St. Augustine.

Women’s Swimsuits

Just in time for the Olympics, I have some good things to say about the clothing of female athletes below, but you’ll have to wait for that.

Many of you know the historical roots of the bikini:  French engineer Louis Réard worked in his mother’s lingerie shop in the 1940s.  There, he designed and got the word “bikini” from the name of the first post-bellum atomic-bomb site, Bikini Atoll, for obvious reasons.  He tried to find a French model to first debut his invention in 1946, but he could not find one.  He ultimately had to hire a stripper.  It took a while for the bikini to catch on in the United States.  As late as 1957, Modern Girl magazine said “No girl with tact or decency would ever wear such a thing.”

Many young Catholics today are discovering this, and so they hesitatingly tell their secular friends that they will don a one-piece, but never the bikini.  Their secular friends think they are insane.

And so do I, but from the other side of the spectrum.

Here’s why:  The only difference you’re really talking about anymore  between a one-piece and bikini is the bellybutton.  But the belly button doesn’t make men lust.  Breasts probably don’t make men lust either, at least when seen from a global-outlook.  What I mean is this:  Most pre-Christianized cultures protected the area below women’s waistlines much more than the top side of the female anatomy.  For most tribal men, there is nothing too tempting about topless women. I can tell you this is true, for I have been to Africa. Women are well-covered below the waist even when minimally covered on top.

In a natural environment, men’s minds finish the lines and complete the picture, especially below the waist. For men, women’s legs don’t point out thighs.  Legs point not to admiration but provocation, especially when the whole person is not encountered (as is only possible in marriage, but that proof shall wait for another post.) 1  In non-perverted societies, women see the need to protect their upper-legs from the stares of men.

I am not saying that Christian women in America or Africa should go topless, but I am saying that even pagan cultures have been forced to maintain a sustainable society by eradicating adultery as much as possible.  This is greatly accomplished by long dresses on their women.  I’m serious.  Here’s where swimsuits dovetail into this:  The bottom part of both bikinis and 98% of Western one-pieces both provide men the same visual as her panties.  But perhaps America misses this because of her obsession with breasts.  We who live in an artificially-constructed sexual environment of implantations can learn a lot from the fact that in a natural environment, there is more temptation to a man below the female waist than above the waist.  2

More than half of the male population is addicted to pornography.  Moms, this is not your fault, but it is your responsibility to protect your daughters at the pool.  At least start with the knee-lengths that some female Olympians wear:

Kelsi Worrell, left, and Katie McLaughlin swim in the women's 200-meter butterfly preliminaries at the U.S. Olympic swimming trials, Wednesday, June 29, 2016, in Omaha, Neb. Worrell won the heat and McLaughlin took fourth. (AP Photo/Mark J. Terrill)

The brains of men and women are different—both in glory and in concupiscence.  Ladies, imagine a guy you just met made you feel yourself the most special, beautiful and protected creature on the planet, and then he tells you that you are the only one. That’s commensurate (but not exact) to what happens chemically in the male brain when he sees as much skin as provided by most modern female swimsuits—one piece or bikini.  Yes, we’re more crude than you who are moved by emotions more than flesh.  I’ll even venture that you’re generally closer to God than us.  But aiding the redemption of the opposite sex must compensate and anticipate the complementary wounds of original sin.

The Mother of God said to the children of Fatima in 1917 in Portugal: “More souls go to Hell because of sins of the flesh than for any other reason… Certain fashions will be introduced that will offend Our Lord very much…Woe to women lacking in modesty. ”

513OLfatima2

Do you really think that the Mother of God would approve of little Jacinta wearing a “one piece” in public? God forbid even the visual.  I guarantee Our Lady would declare this to be mortal sin.

I guarantee.

You say: “But times were different 100 years ago! It was a different culture!”  Yes. I agree. It was a different culture back then when not nearly a fraction of the men were addicted to pornography as today.   I once had a conversation with the Chicago division of the FBI’s chief of child-cyber-crimes department.  If you had heard a fraction of this conversation, each of you mothers and fathers would promise that you would never let your daughters dress in a one-piece or bikini outside the bathtub again.

With all this preaching, I should provide some solutions (for next summer, since I’m three months late on this post!)  One option is the line of relatively-modest swimsuits from Jessica Rey.  Another option is to simply question the system.  Ever wonder why we think it’s normal for there to be public bathing between stranger men and young girls in visually-nothing-more than their underwear?

Why do we take this hook-line-and-sinker?  You can find some websites that doubt the idea that bikinis started in 1946.  But these histories point back to ancient Rome and Greece.  Remember that the Bible gives the Jews the instructions on what to do with immodest gymnasiums from pagan cultures:  Reject them.  In 1 and 2 Maccabees, the last period of martyrs before the arrival of Jesus, many Jews lost their life for refusing (among other things like Greek worship) public gymnasiums.  That is God’s word, not mine.

When I went to India for the first time two years ago, I went to Goa where St. Francis Xavier had first evangelized and baptized thousands.  My friend and I were swimming in the Arabian Sea at dusk.

sunset-in-goa

I was shocked to see that Indian women did not swim with men.  There were separate locations and times.  So, that evening, I saw that the women kept their long, flowing, cool-fitting saris as they walked the beach.  The only immodestly-dressed women were white women.  This was great evidence that American sociology departments never meant that progressive Americans should respect the cultural norms of other countries.  They meant Christians should respect the cultural norms of other countries by never speaking of Christ.  This is a sad self-restraint of the West upon herself, since Christianity alone will help bring India out of the child-rape culture.  3

Let me also point out that when I was in Rwanda, I never saw co-ed swimming.  Why do we in the West think this has to be imposed on the rest of the world?  Why do we accept stranger men walking around with girls in their underwear outlines? It’s insane if you stop to compare our culture to the rest of Western history or even current accepted norms in the East.  When we all see the weight of sins of immodesty at the Final Judgment, we will see through the lens not only of Divine Judgment, but even through humanity of every time and culture…not just contemporary soccer-parents of a fervently-lukewarm era—perhaps a relatively unimportant time in Western-Catholic history.


  1. This post will not make sense to any man already-desensitized to sexuality by pornography.  Even Time Magazine has taken notice in their own secular and erroneous way of the threat that porn poses to virility.

  2.  Keep in mind that I have delivered babies as a paramedic, so I’m not afraid of the human body.  Childbirth provides a lot less opportunity for lust than Louis Réard’s diabolical and global plan for girls.

  3. American-Indian and Harvard grad Siddhartha Kara partly blames the sex-trafficking of young girls in Asia on the theology of reincarnation.  In his book, Sex Trafficking:  Inside the Business of Modern Slavery, Kara points out that if you are born a girl, this itself is proof that you lived some form of negative karmic energy in previous lives by an immoral life, and therefore you deserve to be punished as a girl into sex-slavery.  

Transfiguration and the Song of Songs

Written by one of my spiritual directees who entered women’s religious life.

The Song of Songs illustrates the journey of the Bride, a journey toward love. A journey involves a process, a traveling toward something which one desires but has not yet attained. Highly susceptible to losing his way on a long journey, a pilgrim often encounters numerous and varied obstacles. The Bride in the Song of Songs is no exception. One’s first outlook on the Song of Songs may circulate around the book as brimming over with vibrant images and profound expressions between two lovers. Although this description definitely defines the Song of Songs, it does not include every aspect of this unique book of scripture. The Beloved’s incessant tones of love reach out to a struggling and wounded Bride who displays throughout the book her journey from exile to restoration, hurt to healing, infidelity to consummation. The Bride is far from perfect and her journey toward complete union with the Beloved is a journey that each Christian embarks upon. It is a passage from brokenness to healing, a healing brought about by Christ Himself. As Christ invited Peter, James, and John up the mountain to behold His transfigured glory, so he calls to the Bride in the Song of Songs to come and allow Him to transform her wounds. This invitation revealed in these passages of scripture urges each Christian to respond to the love that Christ desires to give. The Song of Songs and the mystery of the Transfiguration manifest the transforming power of Christ who alone can guide the Christian through the obstacles encountered on the journey of life.

The first poem in the Song of Songs depicts the suffering of the Bride. “I am black but lovely, daughters of Jerusalem…Take no notice of my swarthiness, it is the sun that has burned me. My mother’s sons turned their anger on me, they made me look after their vineyards. Had I only looked after my own!” The Bride laments her condition. Scarred at the hands of others she has neglected the garden of her heart. However, her sorrow clings to a belief that beauty still breathes under the smoke of suffering and sin. The gaze of the Bridegroom penetrates through her swarthiness to reveal her beauty. She knows that she has not completely lost her beauty but it is beyond her power to recover it. He alone can reveal the beauty that is marred by sin. “Since her darkened face does not repulse the one she loves and does not prevent her from being loved, how could she not be beautiful, beautiful because she is loved, simply beautiful because he looks at her?”1  It is his gaze that transforms her. Her darkened condition impels him to gaze upon her because he desires to draw forth the beauty within her. Christ desires to transfigure all those who are darkened by sin. The journey of love begins with a realization of sinfulness. All people, wounded by original sin, can relate to the condition of the Bride in this first poem of the Song of Songs. Although this passage points to the darkness of sin it also proclaims a message of hope as the Bride argues, “I am black but lovely!” She implants in the sinner the courage to admit his sinfulness but to not dwell in it but to cling to the hope that he is beautiful because of the One who loves him. In the Gospel account of the Transfiguration, Christ invited Peter, James, and John up the mountain. Unaware of the impending event, they followed His invitation and consequently beheld his glory. The fear of one’s sinful condition could paralyze one from going up the mountain, but the step of faith in following the Beloved results in receiving his transfiguring gaze. “All powerful and transfiguring look of the beloved! What is essential is to remain in this look. Therefore it is impossible to despise and depreciate oneself because one cannot see oneself anymore but through the loving and transfiguring look.”2 As one lifts his eyes from his darkened condition to gaze on the Beloved and be gazed upon by Him, the beauty of the Christian soul is revealed and is illumined by the light of that powerful gaze.

The Beloved invites all to come into his gaze! He sees the darkened condition of the Bride and “…he comes leaping on the mountains, bounding over the hills.”  He makes the initiative toward the Bride. Despising any quiet gesture, he bounds toward her with the giddiness and excitement of a young lover. Nonetheless, his love is no shallow emotion but a transfiguring gift that he wishes to bestow upon her if she will respond to him. “See where he stands behind our wall. He looks in at the window, he peers through the lattice.”  He can hardly contain himself so eager is he to bestow love and healing. He repeatedly invites, “Come then, my love, my lovely one come.”  Perceiving the beauty of the Bride as he peers in her window, he desires to draw her forth so he can first show her that she is beautiful and then unite Himself with her. She must respond and come out of herself in order to receive His gift. “My dove, hiding in the clefts of the rock, in the coverts of the cliff, show me your face.”  In the mystery of the Transfiguration Christ reveals his glory, but to be transformed by it one must gaze upon it. If Peter, James, and John had not followed him up the mountain they would not have witnessed his Transfiguration. Likewise, the Bride is invited by the Bridegroom to come out of herself so that he can transfigure her. This is the same call each Christian receives from Christ. “A very ancient mystical tradition has always seen in the cracks of the rock the new retreat where the Bride must now dwell, passing from her poor refuge within herself, where she had been hiding, to this very deep cave in the body of Christ, our ‘rock’ (1 Cor 10:4), which is the wound in his Heart (Jn 19:34).”3 Sin builds a cave around the heart. Often one finds security in this cave, consequently avoiding the cave which is the Heart of Christ where true security is found. The cruelty of a sword impelled by sin reveals the ultimate refuge for the sinner himself, the pierced Heart of Christ. Christ’s invitation to dwell in His Sacred Heart entails a big release of all other securities. One cannot dwell in two caves at the same time.

Responding to this profound invitation, the Bride leaves her cave to receive the love of the Bridegroom. “Awake, north wind, come, wind of the south! Breathe over my garden to spread its sweet smell around. Let my Beloved come into his garden, let him taste its rarest fruits.” His invitation is irresistible. “The Bride can say at the same time ‘my garden’ and ‘his garden’, for it is the same. She belongs to herself because she belongs completely to him. The more she is his, the more she is herself. All her desire from then on is to yield to his presence in total self-surrender.” 4 He awakens the beauty within her and stirs up her desire for love, for union with Him who will fulfill her every longing and transfigure her wounds. His loving presence gives birth to a deep joy within her as she invites him to penetrate the neglected garden of her heart. Recognizing him as the source of her own beauty, she discovers herself more fully through her union with him. She has invited him into her garden to water it, renew it, and make it fruitful. United with Supreme Love, her happiness knows no bounds. It seems that what should follow is that they “lived happily ever after,” but the Bride is weak.

The ensuing passage of the Song of Songs reveals the reality of wounded human nature. The Bridegroom is once more outside, knocking to be let in. He has withstood the night and cold, waiting patiently for her to let him in, but she replies, “I have taken off my tunic, am I to put it on again? I have washed my feet, am I to dirty them again?”  What befell her initial response of acceptance and delight? Laziness has replaced her fervor. Allowing physical comforts to obstruct her Beloved, the Bride reveals the shallowness of human love and its inclination toward lesser goods. All Christians desire union with God but become easily distracted by obstacles on the journey that impede their prompt response in following the voice of the Beloved. How often does one proclaim His undivided love but the next moment refuse to rise from the couch to spend time with the Beloved! In the Transfiguration account, the Father proclaims, “This is my Beloved Son, listen to Him.”  Although sleepy, the disciples forced themselves to stay awake in order to witness the profound mystery of His transfigured appearance and the wisdom of His conversation with Moses and Elijah. The voice of the Beloved may be quiet within one’s soul, and it becomes harder to hear the more one is immersed in comforts and distractions. Christ does not force Himself into any soul but waits for the soul to make the decision to come out of itself in order to belong fully to the Beloved and listen to His voice. However, the Bride delayed to let Him in, and she lost Him! “I opened to my Beloved, but he had turned his back and gone!” Realizing her extreme folly and unfaithfulness, she runs out to find him. The reality of the treasure she had lost by her hesitation impacts her fully and her laziness transforms into intense activity as she runs without abandon through the streets seeking Him. The grace of repentance spurs her to search for Him, and her inquiry concerning Him actually serves as a means for evangelization. She asks the daughters of Jerusalem, “Have you seen Him who my heart loves?” She begins to describe Him as “fresh and ruddy,” accenting his brilliance in contrast to her darkness. “In fact, we have, in his face, the union of sah (white) of the light—as is said about the clothing of Jesus during the transfiguration…with red, crimson (adom) , which is the color of love.” 5 Certainly as she describes him, her desire for him only heightens, her repentance deepens and her search for him intensifies. Now the daughters of Jerusalem desire to know him too! Ironically, brokenness and sin can become the means to leading not only oneself but also others to the Lord. The Christian must not despair over his infidelity but use it as a catalyst for deeper union and participation in the mission of the Beloved. The Lord delights in the soul that seeks Him.

The Bride discovers that “the one she was looking for was nowhere else but in her own heart…the Bridegroom, during all the time that his friend was calling him and running after him in desolation, had not run away to the end of the world. He silently retreated to the heart of his love.”6 Burdened by the dispossession of the Beloved, one must simply peer within his heart to discover that He has been there all along. The fear of separation subsides in front of the realization that Christ’s fidelity does not mirror the measure of the soul’s fidelity. St. Paul’s second letter to Timothy contains this message of hope: “If we are unfaithful he remains faithful, for he cannot deny Himself.”  It is not the frantic running through the streets of Jerusalem that reveals his presence but the quiet epiphany that the Bride experiences within herself. No infidelity outweighs the love of Christ. He remains, although perhaps hidden, until the soul discovers the silent presence of the Lord within and chooses to enter into that quiet place of reunion. The Transfiguration occurred on a mountain, apart from the busyness of the city. The apostles spent every day with Jesus, but it was only in the silence and solitude of Mount Tabor where he was transfigured before them. The Bride’s reclusion of self-absorption disappears as she absorbs herself in the recesses of His heart. “Today she wants to be totally his, as he is hers. ‘I am my Beloved’s, and my Beloved is mine’ can therefore appear as the exact and fervent response, in the terms of the renewed covenant, to the horrible formula of divorce that had once been uttered.”7 Repenting of her infidelity, she returns to his embrace, awakened by his merciful presence and unremitting love. Like the Apostles on Mount Tabor, she experiences the transfiguration of God. What follows from this awesome encounter?

The event of the Transfiguration is a mystery of faith. “By His transfiguration, Jesus strengthens His disciples’ faith, revealing a trace of the glory His body will have after the Resurrection. He wants them to realize that His passion will not be the end but rather the route He will take to reach His glorification.” 8  Having experienced His glory, they must follow Him down the mountain and participate in his ministry and experience his Passion. This depicts the reality of a transfigured life. If the Christian can say with the Bride, “My Beloved is Mine, and I am His,” can he also say with the Bridegroom, “I will climb the palm tree…I will seize the clusters of dates”?  The Bridegroom’s desire to climb the palm tree prefigures the Crucifixion where Christ mounted the cross9 for the salvation of the world. The Apostles followed in the footsteps of Christ. Transfiguration demands action. A soul truly united with Christ must live his transfigured existence by embracing the suffering that comes from union with the Beloved. Marriage involves an immense joy but also sacrifice. The union of the Bride with her Bridegroom calls for a continual affirmation of love that will withstand through all trials. The soul truly converted must ask himself, “Am I willing to not only bask in the light of His transfiguring glory but to embrace anything that will come as I follow Christ?” The converted soul has been called forth from the clefts of the rock to become one with Christ. Although still possessing one’s weak human nature, grace perfects this nature to enable one to live a supernatural life. The journey of the pilgrim Christian involves a daily assent to living a transfigured life. Fear of falling through weakness is replaced by a deep faith in the constancy and mercy of the one who transfigures and never grows weary of guiding the pilgrim along the journey to complete Beatitude.


  1. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 90.

  2. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 91.

  3. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 176.

  4. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 228.

  5. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 258.

  6. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 272.

  7. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 275.

  8.  The Navarre Bible, Saint Luke’s Gospel, Four Courts Press: Dublin, Ireland, 1988, 126.

  9. Arminjon, Blaise S. J. The Cantata of Love, Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1988, 325.