The unity between the Holy Spirt and Mary is so intimate that each one can be called the Immaculate Conception—one in eternity, and one in time. However, to understand the importance of Mary in our lives, we have to understand the basics of the Holy Spirit, as given to us by the earliest Christians. This post will be like a tornado hitting a junk pile and then organizing it into nice categories, so bear with the heavy theology at the beginning.
Every earthly analogy to explain the Blessed Trinity eventually breaks down, but the least-failing analogy is the following: The Trinity is like a fire. There is a flame. There is a light. There is heat. In this analogy, the flame is the God the Father (the origin), the light is God the Son (the only one seen by human eyes) and heat is God the Holy Spirit (for obvious reasons.) The flame is not the light. The light is not the heat. The heat is not the flame. But you can not have the flame without the light, nor the light without the heat nor the heat without the flame. The flame is the fire. The light is the fire. The heat is the fire. One fire. So also: One God. Three persons.
St. Augustine had a pretty good analogy, too. He compared the Trinity to the faculties of the human soul. He compared God the Father to the memory, God the Son to the intellect and God the Holy Spirit to the will. Three faculties, but only one center to your responsibility. Furthermore, although the persons of the Blessed Trinity have no need for faith or hope, our faculties do have such a need, and the Church Fathers linked this up, too: Our memory is perfected by hope, our intellect by faith and our will by charity or love. Thus, we have the three supernatural virtues of faith and hope and love as found in 1 Corinthians 13.
If we put all this together, we have this:
God the Father—Flame—Memory—Hope
God the Son—Light—Intellect—Faith
God the Holy Spirit—Heat—Will—Charity
Mary’s relationship to each of the three is important, but (per the title of the article) we’re going to focus on the third category in bold.
Amazingly, you can have supernatural faith without supernatural charity: “If I have all faith, so as to remove mountains, but have not charity, I am nothing.”—1 Cor 13:2b. On the contrary, the only place you can have charity without faith is heaven, since “faith is the substance of things hoped for, the evidence of things not seen.” (Heb 11:1) Why won’t there be faith or hope in heaven? Precisely because faith refers to things not seen and in heaven we will see God face to face. When a person dies in sanctifying grace, his faith and hope terminate, but his charity is launched into the beatific vision and perfect union with God. In the eternal homeland, it will only be charity at every breath.
But back to earth, where Mary once walked. Mary had a union with the Holy Spirit more interior than that of spouses, but purely spiritual, which is why she is always at the center of ancient pictures of Pentecost. Even the Liturgical Calendar reflects this union of the Holy Spirit and Mary, insofar as Pentecost usually falls within the month of Mary—May!
Thus, Mary is our connection to the Holy Spirit for perfecting our will in charity, making us to live lives not just of faith, but of love. St. James writes “Even the demons believe, and shudder.”—Jam 2:19. That means that faith is not enough for salvation. This is where Mary comes in with charity to perfect the will, all because of her union with the Holy Spirit and ability to form apostles (both shown in Mary and Pentecost part I.) Last post showed Mary was the entire key to courage. This post shows Mary as the entire key to love. Courage and love: The two virtues most needed in the lives of Catholics today.
Mary even said to the children of Kibeho in the 1980s (in a Vatican-approved apparition) that in her Son’s heart is found infinite justice and infinite mercy, but in her heart is only infinite mercy.
In May, before Pentecost, we actually come to the Immaculate Heart of Mary and petition the Holy Spirit that He revivify our cold hearts. In this way we go before God not only with the intellect (faith) but with our hearts and wills aflame with the charity of the Holy Spirit. This is why the Marian saints were always the most loving, always the most charitable.
The Church was formed from the side of Christ on the cross just as Eve was formed from Adam’s side. Life was breathed into that body at Pentecost by the Holy Spirit, with Mary at the center. We Catholics don’t adore Mary. We never have and we never will. But if the above connections of the Church Fathers be true, then adoring the Blessed Trinity at Mary’s side is the entire determinant of the advance in the spiritual life.
I suppose I wasn’t clear with my friends or family exactly what I’m doing in India this time either. The Missionaries of Charity at the Mother House in Kolkata wanted me to come back to do general confessions and deliverance prayers for two groups: 1) A youth group of Indian high school students run by four lay American missionaries. 2) University aged students of volunteers from around the world.
It sounds like a glorious work, but I only have the energy for two of these sessions a day. This depresses me when I think of how St. Francis Xavier, at the height of his ministry, was baptizing between 300 and 400 a day in this land.
So, I started thinking of an intercessor of some saint who lived in the world, but didn’t form or affect too many people outside of prayer. This is hard criteria since most prayer warriors were hermits, cloistered nuns and desert monks. On the other hand, the saints who lived in the world, like Bl. Pier Giogio Frassati, affected tremendous amounts of people one-on-one (as evidenced by the surprising hordes of homeless that showed up to his funeral in Turin.) Of course, the latter group seemed to pray all night and use the day for the apostolate.
Then Mary came to mind. I started to wonder about who Mary really formed or affected while she was on earth. Of course, her prayers affected even the whole pagan world in the first century, but in the world around her, who did she form or affect?
Clearly, the longest period of life for her was at home with Jesus and St. Joseph. But, there are instances from the very beginning of her going “with haste” to help her cousin Elizabeth, or that she spurred her Son onto His first miracle because of her love of marriage and married couples (John 2.)
But, excepting the above, I realized that the primary people Mary affected were the Apostles. Even before Pentecost, we know that the Apostles joined Mary in prayer in the first novena ever, the 9 days of prayer in anticipation of the coming of the Holy Spirit (Acts 1:14). Scripturally, we have no reason to believe that Mary abandoned the Apostles after Pentecost, before her Assumption. I believe this means that the primary people that Mary formed in her life was the Apostles.
At the Resurrection, in St. John chapter 21, St. Peter can’t even say that he loves Jesus, as far as the Greek word agape is concerned. Peter can only admit that he likes Jesus (See the Greek word, philo.)
On the other hand, after Pentecost with Mary, Peter shows no fear.
The third glorious mystery, the descent of the Holy Ghost upon Mary and the Apostles is really the coming of the Holy Ghost to the Apostles through Mary. If Mary is the mediatrix of all graces, as most saints believe, then even the Holy Ghost came through her to the Apostles at Pentecost.
So, to recap: At the Passion, only one out of 12 of the Apostles stays strong. At the Resurrection, there is still hesitation among Jesus’ closer followers. At Pentecost, there is no hesitation among the Apostles. Rather, we see a joyful running towards martyrdom. What gives?
It’s everything to do with Mary’s prayer, since she is the spouse of the Holy Spirit. I’m not saying that Jesus leads to fear while Mary leads to courage. But Jesus did say to the Apostles before He was murdered : “It is to your advantage that I go away, for if I do not go away, the Helper will not come to you. But if I go, I will send Him to you.” (John 16:7) Of course, Jesus is speaking of the Holy Spirit, but the advantage He speaks of is that now Jesus Himself would be formed in each of them in unique ways. Only by Pentecost would they fully be ready to share Christ’s suffering and glory in an eternal outpouring of love.
How do we get to Pentecost? Prayer with Mary (Acts 1:14)
But back two sentences is precisely the definition of the Trinity: an eternal outpouring of love. St. Augustine taught that the Father eternally engenders the Son while the Son eternally returns the perfect gift-of-self in a love that spirates between them—the Holy Spirit, the eternal third person of the Trinity who is Love itself. That is why the Holy Spirit is known by some as the eternal (or, in old English, uncreated) Immaculate Conception.
Not long before he was killed at Auschwitz, St. Maximilian Kolbe made the most astounding theological discovery of his life. He remembered that at the apparition in Lourdes, France, Mary told St. Bernadette that she (Mary) was the “Immaculate Conception.” Why didn’t she just say she was Immaculately conceived for that which happened in the womb of St. Anne?
St. Maximilian Kolbe saw that the answer lied in Trinitarian theology: If the Holy Spirit be eternally spirated outside of time as the uncreated Immaculate Conception, then there must be a connection as to why Mary would come to exist in time as the created Immaculate Conception.
The connection is this: Mary is the spouse of the Holy Spirit to the point that they share the same name, just as spouses do. My friend Janet calls them: “Mr. and Mrs. Holy Spirit.”
Once, a student asked me how to tell how much she loved the Holy Spirit. I was surprised at what came out of my mouth: “The test is how much you love Mary.”
They are not the same person, but in the next post we’re going to see—via the Bible and Church Fathers—why he who is united to the Lord is one spirit with Him.
In today’s Gospel, Jesus speaks to the Apostles before His death:
“I will no longer speak much with you, for the ruler of the world is coming. He has no power over me, but the world must know that I love the Father.” (John 14:30)
I noticed that the Greek doesn’t actually have the word power (dunamis) as the English translations do. So, I’m going to give you my literal translation of that line from today’s Gospel:
“The ruler of the world comes and he has nothing on me, but so that the world might know that I love the Father…(this I do.)” (John 14:30-31)
Yes, Jesus literally says of Satan in today’s Gospel in Greek:
He’s got nothing on me.
Besides being awesome, this shows that the devil does not have the power to crucify Jesus. Rather, Jesus goes to the cross of his own accord at the occasion of creatures’ rebellion but ultimately to show the world His own love of the Father, the will of the Father, the decree of the Father that Jesus can drink this cup of suffering (and others’ sin) all to engulf the spirit of death into the divinity of the Trinity by letting the spirit of death, for a very short time, engulf the sacred humanity of Jesus.
Jesus is always in control. That’s why the devil’s got nothing on him. So also in our sufferings, as long as we suffer with Jesus.
Y’all know I’m in India, but I haven’t told y’all about why I came to India for the first time last autumn. It was to help with a new video on the lives of three saints who came to India (St. Thomas the Apostle, St. Francis Xavier and Mother Teresa.) The short movie was produced by my friend Anand and created by my friend Keenan. My job was apparently to sit on the set and drink chai tea. I was very good at that, and good at little else. But I’m happy to say it’s going to be released on Ask a Bishop, so here’s the short preview of what they worked on:
For a few weeks, I’m living in the Muslim quarter of Kolkata. I wear my Roman collar around here, and what’s peculiar is that I rarely get snarky looks from the swarms of Muslims and Hindus packed into this city. Actually, I was shocked at how much respect the Muslims gave me on Qatar Airlines even as I wore my cassock.
On the other hand, a certain generation of Catholics in the United States treat me very differently when they see the cassock. That generation of Americans always stops me with a unconvincing rictus to tell me some combo of the following:
1. I’m glad that what you’re doing “works for you.”
2. I used to be Catholic (usually an altar boy or a nun or both.)
3. Here’s what’s wrong with the Catholic Church (p, q, r, all very predictable.)
4. Here’s what’s wrong with priests (x,y,z, ditto.)
5. My god’s bigger than your religion because we’re all brothers and sisters.
I think this happens to me almost every week. No joke. I usually just smile and nod. So, I don’t know what wounds that generation is dealing with, but philosophically, here’s the ironies they’re speaking to me:
1. Here’s the dogmatic truth of no-dogma that you must accept.
2. Here’s the pathway of no-judgment while I judge you harshly for wearing a cassock
3. I’m absolutely sure there’s no absolute truth.
4. You must promote tolerance.
That last one is funny, considering that I’m a priest and they preach to me. I don’t preach anymore. Not that I’m afraid of a good old- fashioned debate. I just can’t get a word in edgewise anymore when I get around that group who inadvertently subscribe to ecclesial totalitarianism. (Hint: They are not younger than me.)
What if I knocked on your door, and asked to you to accept the love of a man who:
1. Is named Jesus
2. Is very kind
3. Has dark skin
4. Has a great smile
5. Has a batting average of .258
…would you care that I’m describing Jesus Montero of the Seattle Mariners?
In other words, do facts also matter in matters of faith?
As a quick disclaimer let me say that I’m not saying that a single intellectual error means that a person is worshiping a different Jesus Christ than me. It’s simply an open question: Do the facts of a person have to be accurate in order to enter into a relationship with Him? Does doctrine matter in the realm of a relationship with God, or is accepting Jesus nothing more than emotions? If so, I’m sure that mentally-accepting Jesus Montero would make a person feel good, especially if he got that batting average up.
Another disclaimer: Catholicism is not against relationship. Catholicism is about how a relationship can exist with roots that are real, roots that I can’t make up or change. That’s to say: A family. A family exists with both relationships and rules love and traditions. Religion comes from the Latin word religare which is a verb that means “to have roots.” Also, the word “tradition” comes from the Latin traditio which means “to hand down.” What is handing down? Teaching. The word teaching is nothing more than the modern English translation of two words we all seem to have the strangest allergy to: “doctrine” or “dogma.” Perhaps this is all proof that it is fascism—not Catholicism—which tries to shut down the intellectual life.
When someone knocks at your door to tell you about a man named Jesus, that’s nice, but you have to realize that he actually got his ideas of Our Lord from someone who got those ideas from another someone who may or may not be traced back to Christ in an unbroken tradition. Or, the smiley-knocker at the door got his theology directly from the Bible, aka his own private revelation…hence the 30,000 denominations in the USA (and 5 new ones every week) that are each “Bible-only.”
The only other option is a living, guarded, Apostolic authority which is ever-ancient and ever-new.
People say that an unbroken apostolic tradition of teaching would take a miracle to triumph over the telephone game. Yes, God’s good at those. Apostolic tradition is the one no-spin zone of doctrine, the one “non-denominational” Church. In fact, universal is really just a synonym of “non-denominational.”
So, how much change in doctrine begins to paint a different Jesus Christ from the friend and Savior of the Apostles? I don’t really know but let’s look at the two men in the opening picture of this post.
To the left we have St. Francis Xavier, the 16th century co-founder of the Jesuits. He was recruited by his university buddy, St. Ignatius of Loyola. Xavier was sent by Ignatius as a soldier for Christ to the far East to become arguably Christianity’s second greatest missionary, right behind the Apostle Paul. Xavier preached to hundreds of thousands of people especially in the country from which I write, India.
On the right we have an astoundingly wealthy American preacher. Joel Osteen is modern health-and-wealth apostle of the 21st century. Watch a few minutes of him on YouTube to know him yourself. (I know he’s an extreme example, one whom even most of my Protestant friends wouldn’t buy…pun intended.)
In any case, I don’t pretend to know the state of anyone’s heart before God, but even a cursory study of the respective theologies of Xavier and Osteen reveal a belief in a different God/god. Even if you’re not convinced that St. Francis Xavier be perfectly in line with the Apostle Paul (like I am) you still have to admit that this chasm of “Christians” and their respective beliefs seems to prove that Jesus without religion is a human-communication-impossibility. In other words, you’re going to get sucked into someone’s spin zone whether you like it or not.
Apostolic succession is logically the only guarantee of an accurate interpretation of the Holy Scriptures which she (the Catholic Church) produced after being God-breathed into the Evangelists.
So, when Jefferson Bethke tells you about “Why I hate religion but love Jesus,” just realize this: It’s a human-communication-impossibility. Bethke has simply created another religion with Bethke as Pope. If you think this is an exaggeration, just consider that one of the top searches on him is “Jefferson Bethke tattoos.”
In end there is no spin-free zone outside the Apostles and their succession. So, I’ll stick to the “original religion” of the Catholic Church, even if she includes some hypocrites along the way. She also produces some St. Francis Xaviers.
The world over is home to about 7 billion people. Did you know that most of these people (4 billion) have never heard of Jesus Christ? These 4 billion have seen neither hide nor hair of any Christian willing to share the Gospel.
The area most neglected is in the blue areas of the map above. Most of those 4 billion live here. Some missionaries refer to it as the “10/40 window” because here, between the 10th and 40th latitude, live the most unevangelized peoples. I am currently in this window for a few weeks.
Considering the urgency of such a missionary call to evangelize the Far East, we Catholics might be tempted to agree with Jefferson Bethke’s critique of religion (see previous post on his “Why I hate religion but love Jesus”) especially when there is an urgency to spread the basics of the Gospel.
Must we really talk religion when people don’t know about Jesus? I have seen significant religious cowardice this past year, so I understand why Bethke is so wary of hypocrites. I really get that. But, the difference is that I still believe wholeheartedly in the Catholic Church. Here’s why:
Jesus founded an Apostolic Church, despite the problems he knew would come. In fact, the very first priest scandal was Judas…and yet Jesus chose him.
Well, that’s old news. You already know that. But the positive of an Apostolic Church recently struck me in yesterday’s liturgy of the hours. Listen to Peter’s initial explanation of Christ to a group of Gentiles:
“They put Him to death by hanging Him on a tree, but God raised Him on the third day and made Him to appear, not to all the people but to us who had been chosen by God as witnesses, who ate and drank with Him after He rose from the dead. And He commanded us to preach to the people and to testify that He is the one appointed by God to be judge of the living and the dead.” (Acts 10:39b-42)
In the bold font above, St. Peter is saying that the Apostles are not like “all the people” who will soon be speaking of Jesus. Rather, God the Father “made [Jesus] to appear not to all the people but to us,” the Apostles, precisely because they were “chosen by God.”
In other words, the Apostolic nature of his explanation is his carte blanche of credibility into their hearts. Why? Because they alone received the fullness of His teaching, and they alone remembered that Jesus said “I still have many things to say to you, but you cannot bear them now.” (John 16:12)
When I share the Gospel with a person on a plane, I will usually try to introduce that person to the overwhelming love of the Father in sending His Son for us. Only later in the flight do I get to a love of the Church and her moral teachings. And I guess that’s not a bad plan since Jesus did say “If you love me, you will keep my commandments.” (John 14:15)
But Peter is more Church-based in his first explanation of the Gospel. He found it necessary in the above quote from Acts 10 to mention himself and the Apostles even in his very first message of Jesus to the pagans!
St. Peter shows post-modern missionaries that the Apostolic Nature of the Church is not inappreciable to reaching the lands of the 10/40 window, but central. This is why we need not be so ashamed to be both lovers of Jesus and lovers of the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
Why then are there so many more American Protestant families in the 10/40 window than American Catholic families here? Won’t you consider coming to share the Gospel here? They need not only part of the truth, but the fullness of the truth. See http://www.familymissionscompany.com
There’s a video that went viral on YouTube by Jefferson Bethke called “Why I hate religion but love Jesus.” It has almost 30,000,000 views, and there have been formidable Catholic rebuttals online, in conferences, in podcasts and newspapers.
Surprisingly, none of the Catholic apologists whom I have read (which admittedly is only a few) have pointed out that the word “religion” is promoted as a good thing in the New Testament:
“If anyone thinks he is religious and does not bridle his tongue but deceives his heart, this person’s religion is worthless. Religion that is pure and undefiled before God, the Father, is this: to visit orphans and widows in their affliction, and to keep oneself unstained from the world.” (James 1:26-27)
The word for religion above is the Greek θρησκὸς and θρησκεία. Even a Protestant Greek dictionary I have on my iPod translates θρησκεία as “religious worship” and even adds that this word refers to that which is “especially external, that which consists in ceremonies.”
I snapped the above picture this morning. There is a Eucharistic host in exposition in the monstrance just off the shot on Bose street at the Missionaries of Charity Motherhouse. Adoring Christ (almost in the same spot where Mother Teresa knelt) was this Indian girl off the streets. Prostrate, she adored her Lord. She was directly above the tomb of Mother Teresa.
It is interesting that religion, according to St. James, is both external ceremony and taking care of orphans. What is the connection there?
I believe that the answer comes from the Apostle Paul:
“I appeal to you therefore, brothers, to present your bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God, which is your spiritual worship.” (Romans 12:1)
The Latin translation from the Greek “living sacrifice” is hostiam viventem. Notice where else in this post is used the word host: Jesus in the Eucharist. The girl is adoring the Host, but by being in a prostrate state of sacrificial love, she herself has become a host too.
In other words, it is in the Mass that you adore the Host (the sacrifice of Christ perpetuated through time) and then you become a host (a living sacrifice) by serving the poorest of the poor, the unborn, your own children, the rejected, or simply fulfilling your duties in faith and hope and love.
Although a living sacrifice is a terrifying thing from a Jewish point of view, it is our spiritual worship. May we show our brothers and sisters that we can be people of both religion and love, as the Apostles believed 2000 years ago as they offered the Mass and served the orphans.
Flying over India last night, I found that every time I lifted my heart to God, I was given tremendous peace and consolation, especially when I thought of St. Francis Xavier bringing the Gospel of Jesus Christ to that land 37,000 feet below me, dark at 3am and barely alit with the poor lights of over a billion people. I wondered why this joy didn’t happen every time I prayed! That is what this post is about: Why we enjoy God in prayer some days, and then fear our time in prayer on other days.
I just finished offering the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass at the tomb of Mother Teresa here in Kolkata, India, as you can see in the picture above. Again, I was given tremendous joy, peace and consolation while praying the Mass. I have to wonder: Why doesn’t God shower me with more joy and peace when I pray?
We got good news and then bad news.
I like the bad news first. Many times, young Catholics rightly recognize that Mother Teresa had a 60 year lack of joy while thinking about the things of heaven. This is true. However, we young Catholics erroneously ascribe Mother Teresa’s dark night to our laziness. I am not Mother Teresa. The simple truth is that God wants to shower me with joy and some consolation in prayer, but I choose lukewarmness or sin instead…a laziness that God can not reward with an increase of the infused gifts of supernatural faith, hope and charity without denying Himself.
I frequently hear young Catholics tell me that their lack of joy in prayer is due to their “dark night of the soul” or even that their clinical depression is the “dark night of the soul.” Although God is very compassionate in these days of Divine Mercy to the weight we all carry, St. John of the Cross teaches that depression is not the dark night of the soul. Let me summarize the 300 pages I’ve read of his writings in a few sentences: The person living in sanctifying grace begins his or her journey in the purgative way of prayer, meaning that he or she loses unhealthy attachments to physical pleasures (sinful and sometimes even licit) so as to attach oneself more closely to God. After an intense period of detachment, called “the dark night of the senses,” the person begins the illuminative stage of prayer. After this, a few people experience “the dark night of the soul,” a period of intense detachment even from spiritual joys, where Christ makes the soul lose the good feelings of prayer, so as to enter into love God for Himself, more than the reward. Thus begins the unitive way of prayer.
I would imagine that less that 1 percent of all the priests and nuns of the world have ever made it to the unitive stage of prayer, meaning that those currently alive on earth who have gone through St. John of the Cross’s “Dark Night of the Soul” probably consist of 0.000001% of the Catholic population. I am 100% sure that I have not reached the true dark night of the soul or the unitive stage of prayer, despite suffering a bit and even a few hours of prayer a day. Thus, for people to throw around the term “dark night of the soul” as a diagnosis for their simple depression reveals a lack of any study of ascetical theology.
Thus, we can not ascribe our lack of joy in prayer as something akin to Mother Teresa’s 60 years of lack of consolation in prayer. You eating too many twinkies instead of going to adoration does not make you Mother Teresa. My lack of joy in prayer is simply laziness. Thus begins the good news:
God really, really, really wants to give us joy, peace and consolation in prayer. As the Father runs to the prodigal son (Luke 15) to embrace him and cover his shame, so also God wants to make us lovers of Him and lovers of prayer. How do I get it? The initial grace of a conversion is usually unmerited, hence the Apostle Paul persecuting Christians, or you, for example, if you have ever felt the Holy Spirit do incredible things in your soul while you were in sin.
But after we return to the Father’s house, the reality is that “we live by the Spirit the more we renounce ourselves.”–CCC 736. In fact, I could summarize all of St. John of the Cross’s ascetical theology on a youth bulletin board I once saw at Nativity parish in Colorado: “The more we pour out, the more God pours in.”
That’s not to say I can earn the Father’s love, but I can indeed remove blocks to His love and approach Him in the sincerity of repentance. St. Ignatius of Loyola teaches me in his spiritual exercises that when I am in desolation or darkness in prayer, it is one of three things. I’ll paraphrase:
1) God is humbling me, so that I rely on Him alone, instead of believing good-feelings in prayer make me a saint.
2) God is testing me, so as to make me stronger in the fight for my soul.
3) I am sinful or at least lazy.
The first acid test of this is “Am I willing to get rid of serious sin?” St. Ignatius of Loyola even proposes coming out of the stupor of laziness by taking on some physical penance.
St. John of the Cross gives us even more detailed criteria for figuring out if my desolation in prayer is God’s gift of humility or too many video games. They can all be boiled down to one phrase: Do I actually like to be alone in the silence of prayer with God?
That’s not to say I can always be alone with God when I want to. Nor does it mean that a housewife should sneak away to prayer as much as a cloistered Carmelite. But even the housewife can say: Were I alone, would I rather meditate or check Facebook?
Too often, we who are busy like to excuse ourselves from silent meditation by saying 1970s phrases such as “My work is my prayer.” The Catechism of the Catholic Church answers this error of the ascetical life:
“Prayer is the life of the new heart. It ought to animate us at every moment. But we tend to forget Him who is our life and our all. This is why the Fathers of the spiritual life in the Deuteronomic and prophetic traditions insist that prayer is a remembrance of God often awakened by the memory of the heart ‘We must remember God more often than we draw breath.’ But we cannot pray ‘at all times’ if we do not pray at specific times, consciously willing it. These are the special times of Christian prayer, both in intensity and duration.”–CCC 2697, emphasis mine.
To begin this way of prayer, I know of no better book that Conversation with Christ by Fr. Rohrbach, as he explains the way of St. Teresa of Avila for the mere hobbits of the spiritual life like me.
If you don’t have time to read it, know this: The solution to all of the above spiritual theology is very simple: Begin with concrete resolutions of silent, scriptural meditations. The Rosary is great, and I try to pray several Rosaries a day, and I can’t live without Mary and her motherly love…but St. Frances De Sales and St. Alphonsus Liguori teach that the relationship with Jesus Christ (and Mary) are primarily fueled by beginning in the silence of meditation, especially with the Gospels. The doctors of the Church stress this even more than the Liturgy of the Hours for the layman. Even the priest, obliged to the Psalms, can himself not come to any fruitful apostolate without real, silent meditation time.
Start with 10 minutes of silence a day. Put your iPhone on airplane mode and set the stopwatch for 10 minutes so you won’t be tempted to drop it to 9 minutes. If you can do 10 minutes, get up to 20 minutes a day. If you can do 20 minutes a day, you’ll get yourself up to the full 30 minutes a day, setting that iPhone countdown to a full 30 minutes. St. Alphonsus Liguori and St. Teresa of Avila both teach that for the soul truly committed (by concrete resolution!) to 30 minutes of silent meditation, even the devil knows he has lost such a soul to the Kingdom of Christ forever.
On my way to Asia I have a stop over in Washington DC to visit friends. I used to live out here, but driving on the beltway today, I thought of the Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall. I did a little research, and it turns out that it contains the names of 58,272 fallen American soldiers. I wondered how an Abortion Memorial Wall would appear in our nation’s Capital, considering we now have 57,000,000 “fallen” babies. It turns out that, if such a wall were the same height as the Vietnam Memorial Wall (10 feet and 3 inches high), the Abortion Memorial Wall would be 91 miles long, which means that it would more than circle the entire D.C Beltway. As you probably know, I-495 encircles the whole District, and parts of Virginia and Baltimore.
Up to 3,500,000,000 children have additionally died from the Pill’s chemical abortifacient effects. If we made a wall for all these children, the Abortion Memorial Wall would go around the Beltway 87 times.
More than just mind-dulling numbers, we need to remember that every man and woman on that Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall was made in God’s image and likeness, was unique. God had a plan for each one of them. So also, these children who died contained a unique genetic plan and life-plan from God, unique as each name on the wall.
The masculine and the feminine in the liturgy is a common topic on the blogosphere right now, so I want to put polemic aside and just see how the Sacred Scripture sees male and female symbolism in the sacrifice of the Old Testament and the New Testament.
Because we’re looking to Scripture, I want to quote the man who I believe is the greatest Scripture scholar alive, Dr. Brandt Pitre. He is a young husband and father raising several children in Louisiana. Dr. Pitre contends that, for St. Paul, the main difference between male and female is not strength versus weakness, but rather transcendent versus immanent. Let’s consider the definitions of these two terms before looking at the Bible:
Transcendent—beyond or above the range of normal or merely physical human experience. (For God) existing apart from and not subject to the limitations of the material universe.
Immanent—existing or operating within; inherent. (For God) permanently pervading and sustaining the universe.
We’ll come back to these definitions to see how they play into the liturgy, but first let’s look at a human analogy. Pitre tells the story about how one of his children ran in the street and scraped her knee. His wife comforted the child, held her, cried with her, nurtured her and bandaged her. A bit later, when his daughter was done crying, Brandt lovingly reminded her that she could sustain a lot worse injuries if she continues to play in traffic.
Immanent: The female gaze nurtures the family within and by compassion. Transcendent: The male view looks beyond to prevent unintended negative consequences in the future. This isn’t to say that women aren’t smart enough to do anything but put on Band-Aids and it doesn’t mean that men are called to be heartless disciplinarians who only think of the future. But Pitre’s family story does give a clue where we’re going as we equate transcendent with male and immanent with female. (See the definitions above, again.)
Another human example before we get to the liturgy: When I do “honest-question-and-answer-with-Padre” for uncatechized high-school students, I let them ask me hard questions. Inevitably, someone wants to know why women can’t be priests. I begin by asking all the girls to immediately raise their hands if they have imagined in their mind the day when they (the girls) get on one knee and propose to their future groom. Of course they all giggle; no hands are raised. Horrified, I ask “Why not!?” In a voice that says you idiot you already know the answer, some bold girl usually says, “Because I want my fiancé to propose to me.” I agree with her. Then, I get into explaining that just as the young man can and will hold out the ring, making the first move to the bride, so also only the priest can hold up the body-of-Christ and say to his bride, the Church, “This is my body.”
Yes, “the primacy of self-donation relies on the man” as St. John Paul II said in his Theology of the Body Wednesday audiences. The man must go beyond himself. A woman deserves to be pursued, and, although overused in Catholic circles today, there is truth to the analogy that the young man is the bee and the woman is the flower. She truly is “a garden enclosed” as Solomon wrote of his beloved. I even try to give these teens a PG version of transcendence and immanence in the intimate gift of marriage: The man must be the first to make the move outside himself both physically and spiritually. Even in making children, man gives in order to receive; woman receives in order to give. He goes outside himself into the garden enclosed, a garden that will eventually nurture new life in warmth and tenderness, away from the hostile, outside world.
You probably see where this analogy is going:
Another disclaimer to prevent mindless comments below: This is not to say male=good and female=bad. In fact, the writings of every Catholic mystic who I’ve ever read who has visited heaven say there are more women there in heaven than men! (Read that sentence again if you think this article is sexist.) Thus, this male/female business is not a description of good/bad. Another disclaimer: I am fully aware that religions cross some lines on this topic of transcendence. The idea of Allah is totally transcendent in Islam. The idea of pagan gods is mostly immanent (like all the gods of the Egyptians when Moses lived there: dogs, frogs, river…notice, all things of this earth.) Only the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob is totally transcendent and totally immanent, hence the name God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob.
I recently got back from Mother Teresa’s home for the dying in Kolkata, India. Next to this home, there is an enormous temple to the goddess Kali, who is the goddess of destruction. Hindus worship the idols that are made of the things of this earth. In fact, even though I didn’t go into the temple, I walked a mile-long street in front of the temple to find full tens of thousands of idols and flowers to purchase and subsequently worship.
However, in the ancient near East, it was “a first” for a Mesopotamian to hear of a God who transcended even the notion of having a name. Yes, this is our God: I AM WHO AM. Thus, not having a name, is one reason why Adonai is transcendent. No one could control Him. No one could manipulate Him. Unlike a legion of pagan goddesses, Yahweh is one in Being. The many pagan gods (and more often, goddesses) were usually earth-based, not heaven-based. In the Bible, St. Stephen quotes the prophet Isaiah to the high priest before his martyrdom. Notice how he highlights God’s transcendence:
“Yet the Most High does not dwell in houses made by hands, as the prophet says, ‘Heaven is my throne, and the earth is my footstool.”—Acts 7:48
Why was there a male-only priesthood in the Old Testament? Many critics of Western religion claim that this was because of the misogynistic tendencies of Judaism. However, this is easily disproved by a cursory glance at Greco-Roman culture, which had both unspeakable violations against women and female priestesses. Judaism is different on both accounts. Dr. Brandt Pitre gives us a clue why God revealed himself as father, not as mother: He was to be experienced as totally transcendent so that He would not be conflated with the gods (demons) of this earth, especially those of the ancient near East.
The Incarnation of Christ then brings new beauty and a surprising immanence to God’s other-worldliness and majesty: God, who is beyond us in holiness, comes into our mess, to take our sin. The groom comes for His beloved! Christ comes to die for His Church on earth. But lest we fall into presumption, we had to recognize His Majesty first, hence we have the Old Testament being revealed before the New Testament.
There is something true about the term “Mother Earth” or sailors who refer to the ocean as a “she.” Most cultures understand that “she” is immanent, here-and-now. Have you ever heard our planet referred to as “Father Earth”? Of course not. Every culture I have ever read about uses the term “Mother Earth.” I don’t know why this is, but I’ll give it a shot: It’s because deep in every human’s heart we know that Earth is life-giving, relationship-based, like a woman. “Woman is the archetype of humanity,” wrote St. John Paul II. Why? Because God creates us and pursues us.
God is transcendent and beyond. The primacy of self-donation relies first upon God. We never asked to be created. Not men. Not women. He first loved us. No one thought to invite the second person of the Trinity to earth to save us. Not men. Not women. Woman therefore is the archetype of the Church, for we all stand in reception mode before God, albeit in a non-sexual way. Still, the sexual act is a dim reflection of this reality: Man gives in order to receive and woman receives in order to give. The Church remains feminine in a state of reception, for only Jesus can give the Eucharist through his priests. (On a personal note, I believe that is why I am so turned-off by women distributing the body of Christ. It is not because women are less holy. Rather, if a theology of the body has anything to do with the Mass, the notion of female EMHCs promotes the same reality spiritually that transvestitism promotes physically: Living outside the roles of the primacy of the gift of the body. That sounds polemical, but only if gender matters neither for marriage nor for the liturgy. The one thing you can’t do is disapprove of same-sex marriage and then claim that the above paragraph is extreme.)
Even the male anatomy points beyond, like the straight lines of the Liturgy of Old. It is transcendent, beyond itself, gazing to the heavens…not gazing in the eyes of parishioners with a goofy smile. Circles, on the other hand, represent the uterus, the immanent gift of a woman to form children and maintain children within her—within her physically for nine months, and within her heart spiritually for decade after decade after decade. Men know this love spans continents. This is why most dying soldiers in the jungle of a foreign country clamor in their stupor for their mother. The dying men need to be back in the immanent arms of mercy, of compassion. Sometimes, the very body that once gave life has the capacity to bring something back to life by simple nurturing and love. This is why these men cry (rightly! usually but not always!) for their Mom, not their Dad.
Most Americans now believe in the reality of the above paragraph, even if they don’t like stereotyping. But I would argue that this is why the Extraordinary Form of the Mass is so important right now. Barring abortion and contraception, the West understands the role of mother and immanence. However we have lost the notion of the transcendent—the reality of God as Father. This goes beyond the fact that the Latin Mass doesn’t have hyper-immanent music like “Let us build the city of God.” (Yes, God, perhaps we could use Your help in building Your city.) Rather, the Latin Mass is all about God. Consider which direction the priest faces, and the volume of his voice. The little sinful priest is in the presence of a formidable Majesty of infinite holiness. We have to ask: How did Moses speak on Mt. Sinai? What if Moses had turned His back on God—even if it were to try to win the people to God for good reasons? What fool would turn his back on the lightning, thunder, trumpets and smoke? Both in Old and New Testament, the priest is making propitiation to God; he is speaking to God; God is transcendent in a way that is far beyond the little priest. This is why the Latin Mass is anything but clericalistic.
The priest speaks on behalf of the community, but he is not speaking to the community in an immanent, relationship-based way (except for the homily which is considered a pause of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass according to traditional Catholic teaching.) Why? Because in the sacrifice itself, the priest (both Hebrew and Catholic) is making sacrifice for the community, and the community’s opinion of him is irrelevant. In the Old Testament, the priest is there to “sanctify for the purification of the flesh” and the New Testament priest goes beyond this to “purify our conscience from dead works to serve the living God.” (Hebrews 9:13, 14)
I don’t know what Dr. Pitre thinks of the Latin Mass, but now that we understand transcendent and immanent, male and female (from the Scriptures) I want to bring this theology and anthropology to the Liturgy itself and give four reasons why the Extraordinary Form of the Mass wonderfully maintains the masculine transcendent in a unifying way:
1) The quiet voice of the priest reminds the people that God is beyond them. “Why should the nations say, ‘Where is their God?’ Our God is in the heavens; He does all that He pleases. Their idols are silver and gold, the work of human hands. They have mouths, but do not speak, eyes, but do not see.”—Psalm 115
2) The Traditional Latin Mass, where everyone faces the same direction, is a reminder that moral doctrine is not determined by looking within the community but outwards to Divine Revelation. Usually the sermon at the TLM conveys this reality too, but not always.
3) The priest is a father, and it is he who is given the gift by God to launch his family transcendently into the world by strengthening them with the Holy Eucharist. Dr. Brandt Pitre quotes a stunning secular statistic: Children will imitate their mother’s religious habits from age 1-13 but they will imitate their father’s religious habits from age 14 to death. I don’t remember the exact numbers, but it was upwards of 80% or 90%. The Extraordinary Form of the Mass respects this in having no Extraordinary Ministers of Holy Communion (most of whom are women in the Ordinary Form, statistically speaking.) Ite Missa Est is translated by Archbishop Fulton Sheen as: “Go. The sacrifice has been sent to God.” Do you notice how masculine and transcendent that is? Of course, this is no truer in Latin than it is in English. That’s not the point of departure. The rub is this: Who gave you Holy Communion is going to be spiritually linked to your transcendent launch (a father’s role) into a hostile world. Of course, the Eucharist is still the strengthening body of Christ regardless of the hands of the distributor. But look at the very vocabulary of the previous sentence. This is why within Byzantine Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy, the role of the priest as sole-distributor of Holy Communion is not only psychological, but essential to respecting the sacrifice and even the ordering of the angels. Why? Because the order of the angels—all of whom are present at Divine Liturgy in varying ranks—is ontologically reflected in the role of the male and female genders within this supreme act of worship. The priest functions as Christ; the deacon symbolizes an angel; the head-covered-woman symbolizes Mary (or even the wholeness of the Church.) For the Eastern Fathers, few crimes could compare with disrupting this order of worship and the distribution of the Sacred Mysteries. Folks, few off Athos are fighting over the Filioque anymore! I firmly believe that ecumenism with the East will fail until we fix our own liturgy.
4) The externals of the Traditional Latin Mass highlight the fact that the Mass is a sacrifice before it is a meal. Venerable Fulton Sheen pointed out how grotesque it would be if the Old Testament sacrifice animal were first eaten before it was sacrificed. So also, the Catholics who clamor for a Eucharistic meal but refuse to live sacrifice become “parasites on the Body of Christ,” according to Archbishop Fulton Sheen.
The transcendence of a sacrifice belongs to a male priesthood, called to go outside of his family, for the primacy of self-donation relies upon the man to make atonement before a God of infinite love and infinite holiness. The form of the Mass offered will naturally reflect the type of priest that you get, and vice versa. A priest who has formed himself to be an entertainer for Christ’s people will still be an entertainer, even with purified intentions of the salvation of souls. But a priest who sees his role as both self-immolating victim and sacrifice-confector will live in that way—joyful that He stands with Christ—but awesomely aware of eternal consequences.
We’re in a crisis of being unable to accept a quiet, transcendent priest who will not change doctrine. Not unlinked, we’re afraid of the silence and majesty of the Extraordinary Form of the Mass. People understand that we have to be kind and talkative (immanent) but they do not understand that Divine Revelation and worship must touch upon the transcendent. As Dr. Pitre said, the most masculine thing ever said was: “This is my body given up for you.” The most feminine thing ever said was “Be it done unto me according to your will.” This is the life of Christ and His Church. The Son of God first lived in His Triune glory beyond us, and then (and only then) can we name it as a beautiful surprise that His Majesty would choose to be immanently Emmanuel, God-With-Us.